Chapter 1: Introduction

Upon completion of this chapter, the student should be able to:
  1. Define and illustrate agreement reality.
  2. Define and illustrate experiential reality. 
  3. Identify the two criteria for scientists to accept the reality of something they have not personally experienced. 
  4. Differentiate epistemology from methodology. 
  5. Define and illustrate causal reasoning and probabilistic reasoning. 
  6. Differentiate the scientific approach from the native human inquiry approach to causal and probabilistic reasoning.
  7. Differentiate prediction from understanding.
  8. Describe the roles of tradition and authority as sources of secondhand knowledge.
  9. Define and illustrate each of the following errors in personal human inquiry: inaccurate observation, overgeneralization, selective observation, and illogical reasoning.
  10. Show how a scientific approach attempts to provide safeguards against each one of these errors.
  11. Define and illustrate the premodern, the modern and the postmodern approaches to reality.
  12. Describe what is meant by science being logico-empirical.
  13. Describe the three major aspects of the overall scientific enterprise.
  14. Define theory and indicate how it differs from philosophy or belief.
  15. Give three examples of social regularities.
  16. Define aggregate and present a rationale for why social scientists examine aggregates.
  17. Give four examples of variables and their respective attributes.
  18. Differentiate independent and dependent variables by definition and example, and show how they contribute to understanding causality.
  19. Define and illustrate the three purposes of social research.
  20. Define and contrast an idiographic explanation with a nomothetic explanation.
  21. Define and indicate how inductive theory differs from deductive theory.
  22. Define and give examples of quantitative data and qualitative data.